of the source language message, first in terms of meaning, and secondly in terms of style.
翻譯是科學，因為它涉及思維和語言,反映了存在與認識,主體與客體的關系,這種關系可用受一定規律支配的語言加以描述,翻譯有科學規律可循,所以是科學。translation is a kind of science because it has a whole set of rules governing it and certain objective laws to go by in the process of translating just as other sciences do.
翻譯是藝術，因為翻譯是譯者對原文再創造的過程。譯者不可避免地帶有自己的主觀色彩，有他自己的獨創性。translation is also an art, a bilingual art. Like painting, translation enables us to reproduce the fine thought of somebody, not in colors, but in words, in words of a different language.
翻譯是技能，譯者需采用增詞，減詞，切分,轉換等方法。besides, it’s also a craft, because in translation, certain skills and technique are needed in order to attain clearness of style, and fluency in language.
6. The Process of Translation
A. Preparation: basic knowledge about both languages as well as the background knowledge; basic skills in translation are necessary;
B. Comprehension: understanding accurately the meaning of the source language; How?
C. Expression/Representation: try to express the meaning in idiomatic Chinese;
D. Revision /proofreading: check again and again to polish the language.
STEP 1 The Stage of Understanding
The understanding in the process of translation is different from the understanding in our daily reading.
First of all, the aim of the understanding in the process of translation is representing (表達) the content faithfully, so we have to try to understand the text completely, deeply and in detail. Secondly, in the understanding in translation, we are thinking in two languages, and in two ways. So, it’s very complicated.
STEP 2 The Stage of Representation
Literal Translation means translating according to the surface meaning and keeping the structures of sentences. Literal translation keeps both the content and the form of the original work.
2.意譯( Liberal Translation)
Because of the different way of thinking some of the English sentences cannot be translated in the literal way, they can only be translated in the liberal way. In liberal translation the form can be neglected but the content must always be faithful.
3. The Relation between Literal Translation and Liberal Translation
There has been the discussion about literal translation and liberal translation. In fact, they are both necessary in translation. We can’t imagine anyone using only literal translation or liberal translation in their translating
7. History of Translation in China
1)佛經翻譯時期，從東漢開始至唐宋，1000余年.The first high tide of translation in China is the translation of The Buddhist Scripture (佛經)。It began at the end of the Han Dynasty, came to flourishing in the dynasties of Sui and Tang, declined in the Song Dynasty. It lasted more than 1000 years .（支謙、道安，鳩摩羅什、真諦、玄奘）